Small group projects

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Small group projects

Efficiency is often higher that is, closer to 1 with larger and more modern turbines. Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply. In some installations, the water flow rate can vary by a factor of Flexibility Hydropower is a flexible source of electricity since stations can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands.

The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. Hydroelectric stations have long economic lives, with some plants still in service after 50— years. Where a dam serves multiple purposes, a hydroelectric station may be added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation.

It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation. Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants, for example.

The Grand Coulee Dam switched to support Alcoa aluminium in Bellingham, WashingtonUnited States for American World War II airplanes before it was allowed to provide irrigation and power to citizens in addition to aluminium power after the war.

In Surinamethe Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry.

Reduced CO2 emissions Since hydroelectric dams do not use fuel, power generation does not produce carbon dioxide. While carbon dioxide is initially produced during construction of the project, and some methane is given off annually by reservoirs, hydro in specific nordic cases, has the lowest lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for power generation.

Greater greenhouse gas emission impacts are found in the tropical regions because the reservoirs of power stations in tropical regions produce a larger amount of methane than those in temperate areas. In some countries, aquaculture in reservoirs is common.

Multi-use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project.

Small group projects

Hydroelectric power stations that use dams submerge large areas of land due to the requirement of a reservoir. These changes to land color or albedoalongside certain projects that concurrently submerge rainforests, can in these specific cases, result in the global warming impact, or equivalent life-cycle greenhouse gases of hydroelectricity projects, to exceed that of coal power stations.

Large reservoirs associated with traditional hydroelectric power stations result in submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, sometimes destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests, marshland and grasslands. Damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife.

Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment. Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks. Where there are multiple uses of reservoirs such as water supply, recreation, and flood control, all reservoir evaporation is attributed to power production.

This has a negative effect on dams and subsequently their power stations, particularly those on rivers or within catchment areas with high siltation.

Siltation can fill a reservoir and reduce its capacity to control floods along with causing additional horizontal pressure on the upstream portion of the dam.

Eventually, some reservoirs can become full of sediment and useless or over-top during a flood and fail. Lower river flows will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity.

The result of diminished river flow can be power shortages in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. The risk of flow shortage may increase as a result of climate change.

List of HVDC projects - Wikipedia

Environmental impacts of reservoirs Lower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions, as it has been noted that the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions produce substantial amounts of methane.IFC Project Mapping {{TotalRowsFromSearch}} Projects Disclosed Since © {{currentYear}} IFC User Agreement.

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