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Prehistory before BC [ edit ] Historical changes to the landscape[ edit ] The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by its constantly shifting, low-lying geography. On display in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden. The area that is now the Netherlands was inhabited by early humans at least 37, years ago, as attested by flint tools discovered in Woerden in After the end of the ice age, various Paleolithic groups inhabited the area.
Another group residing elsewhere is known to have made canoes. The oldest recovered canoe in the world is the Pesse canoe. Autochthonous hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture are attested from around BC onwards. To the west, the same tribes might have built hunting camps to hunt winter game, including seals.
The arrival of farming around — BC [ edit ] Agriculture arrived in the Netherlands somewhere around BC with the Linear Pottery culturewho were probably central European farmers.
Agriculture was practised only on the loess plateau in the very south southern Limburgbut even there it was not established permanently. Farms did not develop in the rest of the Netherlands. There is also some evidence of small settlements in the rest of the country.
These people made the switch to animal husbandry sometime between BC and BC. Dutch archaeologist Leendert Louwe Kooijmans wrote, "It is becoming increasingly clear that the agricultural transformation of prehistoric communities was a purely indigenous process that took place very gradually.
The Funnelbeaker culture was a farming culture extending from Denmark through northern Germany into the northern Netherlands. In this period of Dutch prehistory the first notable remains were erected: To the west, the Vlaardingen culture around BCan apparently more primitive culture of hunter-gatherers survived well into the Neolithic period.
Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures around — BC [ edit ] Around BCE there was a transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the Corded Ware pastoralist culture, a large archeological horizon appearing in western and central Europe, that is associated with the advance of Indo-European languages.
This transition was probably caused by developments[ clarification needed ] in eastern Germany, and it occurred within two generations. The first evidence of the use of the wheel dates from this period, about BC.
This culture also experimented with working with copper. Evidence of this, including stone anvils, copper knives, and a copper spearhead, was found on the Veluwe.
Copper finds show that there was trade with other areas in Europe, as natural copper is not found in Dutch soil. Bronze Age around — BC [ edit ] A bronze ceremonial object not a sword, but called the "Sword of Jutphaas"dating from — BC and found south of Utrecht. The earliest bronze tools have been found in the grave of a Bronze Age individual called "the smith of Wageningen ".
More Bronze Age objects from later periods have been found in EpeDrouwen and elsewhere. Broken bronze objects found in Voorschoten were apparently destined for recycling. This indicates how valuable bronze was considered in the Bronze Age.
Typical bronze objects from this period included knives, swords, axes, fibulae and bracelets. Location of the Elp and Hilversum cultures in the Bronze Age. Most of the Bronze Age objects found in the Netherlands have been found in Drenthe.
One item shows that trading networks during this period extended a far distance.The two-year Research Master’s in History is an outstanding preparation for a PhD in history within or outside Leiden University. You write an elaborate thesis under the supervision of an expert in the field which potentially serves as an excellent starting point for a PhD dissertation.
It is home to Rembrandt Van Rijn, one of Europe’s oldest universities and the site of the first tulips in Europe. The tulip reached the Netherlands having come from Persia and Turkey through Vienna – all part of the Ottoman Empire – in Degree MA Address Book and Digital Media Studies: Leiden University, P.O.
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