The colonies experienced a series of revolts and rebellions due to mounting social, political, and economic tensions. Like all rebellions and revolutions, they were led by the middle class.
That was only an effect and consequence of it. The British took over North America at the end of the war, ruling the region north of Florida and west to the Mississippi River. Take a look at the map above. Americans and Redcoats fought together against the French but, as the saying goes, familiarity breeds contempt, and colonial militias resented the contempt of their superiors in the British military.
They bristled under British attempts to keep them near the East Coast and quarreled over financial issues regarding taxes and trade. Byit was time to dust off the Join, or Die. The British were overextended financially and geographically after their win over France and they wanted to push more settlers along a north-south axis to Anglicize French Canada make it more English and establish a claim to Florida.
Neither British nor French could afford to sever their alliance with all Indians out of fear that they would join the other side and gang up on them.
Afterthe French were gone and it was basically expansion-minded Whites against Indians, now Colonial conflicts and rebellions commonly used term among British Americans instead of individual tribal names like Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, Iroquois, Cherokee, etc. Indians, too, began to see themselves increasingly as one group but struggled to unify.
Linguistic barriers and traditional rivalries made it difficult for tribes to communicate and cooperate with each other. Yet, as is often the case in human conflict, be it marital, commercial, political, or military, money was an important root of the problem.
American merchants protested against British officials being able to search their homes and warehouses for contraband. One of their lawyers in Boston, James Otis, Jr.
Taxes are hard to measure because they varied among the colonies and were levied in a variety of forms, including tobacco, fur, rum, and coins. Propertied white males could vote at least in the lower houses of all the assemblies, though some colonies had royally appointed governors. Third, representation of any kind barely existed outside the British Empire in and complaining about its lack thereof would not have even made sense elsewhere.
In the English Civil War of the s, Puritans beheaded their king and set up the biggest republic the world had seen in years.
And, as a colony, they enjoyed less political autonomy than countries like Australia and Canada do today within the British Commonwealth. By the s, the long period of relative self-rule and lax enforcement known as the Era of Salutary Neglect was ending.
There was no real constitutional precedent to look to because the British Constitution was not a written document so much as an evolving political tradition. Currency was also controversial. With no gold or silver mines, the colonies usually had an outflow of hard currency, making specie coins an impractical solution for legal tender.
Most backcountry transactions relied on bartering of commodities e. Locally printed colonial money was spotty and unreliable and depreciated when taken overseas. The British standardized colonial money with the Currency Act ofthat encouraged the use of British pound sterling by regulating colonial money and prohibiting it from use in debt transactions, the basis of most import-export trade.
This tightening of the money supply was a major grievance for the next decade, though the British repealed the act inbefore the actual revolution. Taxes were even more contentious.
The law was enacted to prevent colonists from smuggling molasses from the French Caribbean. George Washington won an election to the Virginia House of Burgesses in by buying off eligible voters in his district with gallons of rum, beer, and cider.
The colonists voiced their displeasure at being taxed without representation, but mostly they just kept cheating. Because of its big backlash, many historians use it to date the beginning of the American Revolution.
The Stamp Act created a series of annoying taxes of roughly one penny on legal transactions, including marriage licenses, deeds, wills, contracts, etc. It was the first time the British levied an everyday tax within the colonies. The response was vigorous and rowdy, with tax collectors being tarred and feathered, temporarily buried alive or burned in effigy, and rebels protesting with signs, songs, parades, and the like.
Across the colonies, loosely affiliated groups calling themselves the Sons of Liberty popped up. The British kept sawing them down until the Sons of Liberty secured their fourth pole with iron bands and the British blew it up.
An unstable monarchy further muddled colonial relations. The young, inexperienced King George was in the early stages of mental illness, probably related to or compounded by a porphyria skin disorder triggered by arsenic in his medicine or makeup.
Related to much of the European royalty that carried hereditary madness, George was sometimes kept in a straightjacket by his ministers. Complicating matters further, the communication lag of ships crossing the Atlantic confused colonists and rulers alike.
Atlantic trips could last anywhere from a few weeks to a few months. A becalmed ship could drift for days depending on weather in the Doldrumsthe equatorial zone where prevailing trade winds meet.The Protestant Revolution of , sometimes called "Coode's Rebellion" after one of its leaders, John Coode, took place in the Province of Maryland when Puritans, by then a substantial majority in the colony, revolted against the proprietary government led by the Roman Catholic Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore.
Colonial representatives met under one roof for the first time, forming the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia and erecting shadow governments called Committees of Correspondence atop the foundation of earlier networks. In retrospect, this was the germ of the future U.S.
government though no one knew it at the time. () Armed rebellion, by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon, against being ruled by Governor William Berkeley Leisler's Rebellion () Uprising in the late 17th century in colonial NY. For the English Atlantic colonies—the first of England's overseas possessions to win their independence—the claim to have fomented the "first rebellion against royal .
Colonial Indian Wars, Battles & Massacres: Powhatan Wars (). Pequot War (). King Philip’s War (). French and Indian War (). Pontiac’s Rebellion (). Like other relations between European settlers and Native Americans throughout American History, tensions between the indigenous .
The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: Guerre des patriotes) by Québécois, is the name given to the armed conflict in –38 between the rebels of Lower Canada (now southern Quebec) and .