A discussion of drug identification with gas chromatography mass spectometry

This technique basically studies the effect of ionizing energy on molecules. It depends upon chemical reactions in the gas phase in which sample molecules are consumed during the formation of ionic and neutral species.

A discussion of drug identification with gas chromatography mass spectometry

Paracetamol Acetaminophen in addition to aspirin is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic medication by millions of patients worldwide. Today paracetamol became an integral part of a heroin mixture and is very popular at the street market.

A discussion of drug identification with gas chromatography mass spectometry

The main reason for this is that it can be obtained without a prescription, it is cheap, and by most people well tolerated without side effects. The goal is to identify presence of paracetamol, by analytical method of gas chromatography mass spectrometer GC-MS in postmortem material together with psychoactive substances.

INTRODUCTION

For chemical-toxicological analysis is used biological material collected trough autopsy of 20 deceased people, suspected to have died due to psychoactive substance overdose. From processed 47 samples that were analyzed in the period from to19 are blood samples, urine 19, 3 samples of stomach contents, and 6 samples of bile content.

Deceased were middle-aged, of which only 7 were female. The tested samples were processed according to two methods of extraction. Extraction by XAD-2 resin, and the extraction by the method of salting out with sodium tungstate.

Extracts of the samples were then dissolved in chloroform and continued analysis at the analytical instrument. Identification of the paracetamol presence, in the test biological samples is demonstrated by the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectometry hereinafter referred to as GC-MS.

The analysis of blood samples, urine, bile and stomach contents, obtained after the autopsy of deceased persons, by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, in analytical manner confirmed the fact that paracetamol is a very common component of psychoactive substances poisoning.

In our assay of samples we detected psychoactive substances heroin, codeine, morphine, sertraline, diazepamand almost all were found in the combination with paracetamol, indicating the poor quality of illicit drugs sold on the market. Paracetamol Acetaminophen is a very common component in mixtures of street drugs.

ASTM International - Withdrawn Standards

Such mixtures almost anyone can afford, but the very quality of these drugs has become extremely low, because it does not sell the pure substance, but is mixed with various medications.

According to research Pantazia et al. Most of the time it replaces caffeine and paracetamol. According to the Risser et al. When we talk about illegal drugs, we must emphasize the fact that there is no quality control, or the composition of the drug.

The composition of the drug purchased on the black market is still unknown to potential user. While reaching the final drug users it pass through many hands, and at each step something is added to increase earnings.

Gas Chromatography (GC)/Mass Spectrometry (MS) The most precise procedure for the detection of banned substances is a combination of GC and MS. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is a two-step process, where GC separates the sample into its constituent parts while MS provides the exact molecular identification of the compounds. Chromatography is a technique that separates compounds based on their physicochemical properties, whereas mass spectrometry (MS) identifies and measures gas phase ions based on mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). The combination of these two techniques offers high specificity, sensitivity, and flexibility. Withdrawn Standards A4- Withdrawn Specification for Medium-Carbon-Steel Splice Bars A5- Withdrawn Specification for High-Carbon Steel Joint Bars.

Most often present additives or impurities in narcotic drugs that are added are caffeine, ephedrine, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid aspirin and additives such as powders, cement and chalk.

While safe and effective in therapeutic doses, paracetamol is one of the most common causes of acute drug poisoning. Paracetamol from mid is widely used.Withdrawn Standards A4- Withdrawn Specification for Medium-Carbon-Steel Splice Bars A5- Withdrawn Specification for High-Carbon Steel Joint Bars.

The following conditions were used in the mass spectrometer: peak width Da for Q1 and Q3, collision gas pressure mTorr (Argon), capillary temperature °C, vaporizer temperature °C, sheath gas pressure 55 Arb units, ion sweep gas pressure Arb units, aux gas pressure Arb units, spray voltage V, DCV −4 V.

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis can be performed on liquids, gases or solids. For liquids and gases the sample is commonly directly injected into the GC. For solids, the analysis is carried out by solvent extraction, outgassing (desorption) or pyrolysis.

ASTM International : Withdrawn Standards

Identification of the paracetamol presence, in the test biological samples is demonstrated by the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectometry (hereinafter referred to as GC-MS). The technique of GC-MS is a selective, sensitive and reliable, and is therefore considered a “gold standard” for determining the drug, and the drug substance.

Gas Chromatography. Mass Spectrometry will then be used to identify as many components in the gasoline as possible and to determine the concentration of ethanol and benzene in the sample. Chromatography is a technique that separates compounds based on their physicochemical properties, whereas mass spectrometry (MS) identifies and measures gas phase ions based on mass-to-charge ratio (m/z).

The combination of these two techniques offers high specificity, sensitivity, and flexibility.

GC-MS Analytical Testing Lab Services | EAG Laboratories